Mississippi State University

Table of Contents

Tours

  1. Campus Tree Trail

    MSU is home to more than 10,000 tree species and varieties. Each year the university plants 80-100 new ones. This tour will introduce you to some of the trees living on Mississippi State's campus.

    Stops

    1. Live Oak

      Live Oak
      Spanish oak

      Quercus virginiana Miller
      Family: Fagaceae


       

      Habitat and Ecology:

      Site: common in dry, sandy woods; occasionally occurs in moist deciduous

      forests, roadsides, and borders of salt marshes

      Soil Texture: medium - coarse

      Soil pH: 4.5 - 6.5

      Range: Virginia; south to Florida; west to Texas; in Mississippi, reported by the NRCS Plants Database in the counties of Washington, Hinds, Copiah, Adams, Amite, Wilkinson, Hancock, Harrison, and Jackson

       


       

      Identification

      Leaves:

      Type: simple, alternate, persistent
      Size: 1.38” - 4.0” long; 0.75” - 2.0” wide
      Margin: entire

      Apex: rounded; may have bristle tip

      Base: cuneate to rounded

      Shape: oblong

      Color: light to dark green above; grayish green below

      Surface: shiny above; densely pubescent below

      Venation: pinnate

      Twigs:

      Size: slender, rigid

      Color: gray

      Surface: juvenile pubescent; older smooth; leaf scars half-round; numerous bundle scars

      Buds:

      Size: < 0.13” long

      Shape: ovate, nearly globular

      Color: reddish brown

      Surface: several light brown scales with pale margins

      Fruit and Flowers:

      Nut: acorn, annual; cup goblet-shaped, light gray scales with reddish tips, often pubescent, encloses 25 - 50% of nut

      Size: 0.63” - 1.0” long
      Shape: narrowly oblong
      Color: dark brown to black

      Flower: monoecious; unisexual; staminate, yellow, hairy catkins, 3.0” long; pistillate, in few-flowered spikes , 1.0” - 3.0” long

       

      Bark: dark reddish brown to nearly black; furrowed; separating into small appressed scales

      Physical Attributes:

      Form: single stem

      Size: 50.0’ - 80.0’, mature

      Growth Rate: 25.0’ maximum @ 20 yrs

      Life Span: (>100 yrs)

      Tolerances: Shade: medium Drought: medium Fire: low Anaerobic: medium

       

      Propagation: seed (no cold stratification required); bare root; container

      Other: resprout/coppice potential


       


      Uses

      Wildlife Value and Uses:
      acorns important food source for northern bobwhite, mallard, sap- suckers, wild turkey, black bear, squirrel, and white-tailed deer; provides cover for birds and mammals; rounded clumps of ball moss found in live oak used for nest construction

       

      Timber Value and Uses: heavy, strong wood; of little use commercially although suitable for construction; excellent species for reforestation to prevent soil erosion; originally cleared for agriculture; potential for revegetating coal mine spoils.

       

      Landscaping Info: used for shade and as an ornamental; fast growing if well watered and soil conditions are good; 4 feet in the first year; extremely hard to kill because it sprouts vigorously from the root collar; susceptible to freezing temperatures and acid rain

       

      Other Facts: first publicly owned forestland at the end of the eighteenth century was for the purpose of preserving the supply of southern live oak for the Navy’s shipbuilding needs; considered "one of the noblest trees in the world and virtually an emblem of the Old South"; protected today for public enjoyment




    2. Leland Cypress

      Leyland Cypress

      x Cuprocyparis leylandii 
      Family: Cupressaceae


       

      Habitat and Ecology:

      Site: moist sites

      Soil Texture: organically rich, well-drained loams

      Soil pH: acidic

      Range: 6-10

       


       

      Identification

      Leaves:

      Type: Evergreen, flat, spreading 

      Color: dark green

      Twigs:

      Size: slender

      Color: reddish brown

      Fruit and Flowers: Non-Flowering

      Physical Attributes:

      Form: single or multiple stem, pointed crown

      Size: 60.0’ - 70.0’

      Other: Deciduous hybrid magnolia (M. denudata x M. liliiflora)


       


      Uses

      Landscaping Info:
      Common landscape tree. A bi-generic fertile hybrid between Monterey cypress (Cupressus macrocarpa) and nootka false cypress (Chamaecyparis nootkatensis). Susceptible to rust, canker, and root rot.

       

      Reference: Missouri Botanical Garden Plant Finder

    3. American Sycamore (Moon Tree)

      American Sycamore

      Platanus occidentalis 
      Family: Platanaceae


       

      Habitat and Ecology:

      Site: moist, rich soil; margins of streams and lakes; rich bottoms

      Soil Texture: medium - coarse

      Soil pH: 4.9 - 6.5

      Range: Maine; west through New York to Ontario, Michigan, central Iowa, and eastern Nebraska; south to Texas; east to northern Florida; in Mississippi, throughout

       


       

      Identification

      Leaves:

      Type: simple, alternate, deciduous 
      Size: 4.0” - 7.0” dia. 

      Margin: wavy, short-long tapering teeth; 3-5 lobed; broad, shallow sinuses

      Apex: long-tapered

      Base: flat – heart-shaped

      Shape: broadly ovate

      Color: light green above; paler below

      Surface: glabrous above; pubescent along veins below

      Venation: palmately lobed

      Twigs:

      Size: slender

      Color: orange-brown 1st year, then gray

      Surface: large distinct bundle scars (5-9); leaf scars, horseshoe-shaped, surround bud; stipule scars surround twig; zigzag branching

      Buds:

      Size: terminal absent; laterals 0.25” – 0.38” long

      Shape: conic, slightly curved divergent

      Color: brown

      Surface: single resinous scale

      Fruit and Flowers:

      Nut: multiple of Achene

      Size: 1.0” dia.

      Shape: globose; Achene elongated, obovoid, blunt apex; seed oval

      Color: ball brown; seed yellow-brown

      Flower: monoecious; unisexual; minute, in dense, stalked heads; staminate heads yellow-green, axillary, 3-6 long pointed petals; pistillate heads rusty to dark red, on long terminal stalks, 3-6 large petals

       

      Bark: red-brown; older trees light greenish gray to nearly white on upper bole; exfoliated outer layers; overall mottled appearance

      Physical Attributes:

      Form: single stem

      Size: 100.0’, mature

      Growth Rate: 65.0’ maximum @ 20 yrs

      Life Span: (>100 yrs)

      Tolerances:
      Shade: medium
      Drought: low
      Fire: medium
      Anaerobic: medium

       

      Propagation: seed (no cold stratification required); bare root; container, cuttings

      Other: resprout/coppice potential


       


      Uses

      Wildlife Value and Uses:
      Information Database (TIPID) gives American sycamore an overall wildlife index value of only 3.3 out of a possible 10.0; rated as “Good” in only two categories: nongame bird cover, and small mammal cover; rated only “Fair” in all food categories

       

      Timber Value and Uses: Grown in short-rotation plantations primarily for pulp; also used for rough lumber; has been used for butcher's blocks, furniture, veneer, interior trim, boxes, crates, flooring, particleboard, and fiberboard; recommended for planting on all types of strip-mined land, and useful in rehabilitation of various sites with saturated soils

       

      Landscaping Info: Widely used as a street tree; rapid growth; tolerant of short-term inundation; fairly disease free; somewhat brittle limbs; subject to wind and ice damage

       

      Other Facts: Used by Native Americans for a variety of medicinal purposes (cold and cough remedies, and dietary, dermatological, respiratory, gynecological, and gastrointestinal aids).

      The sycamore located in the MSU Junction was grown from a seed that traveled to the moon. This is known as the Moon Tree.

       

      Reference: Hodges, J.D., Evans, D.L., Garnett, L.W. (N.D.) Mississippi Trees. Mississippi Forestry Commission, Jackson, MS.

    4. Southern Magnolia

      Southern Magnolia

      Magnolia grandiflora L. 
      Family: Magnoliaceae


       

      Habitat and Ecology:

      Site: rich bottom lands or gentle protected slopes

      Soil Texture: fine - medium

      Soil pH: 4.5 - 6.5

      Range: eastern North Carolina; south to central Florida; then west through roughly the southern half of the Gulf coastal states into southeast Texas; most prevalent in Louisiana, Mississippi, and Texas; in Mississippi, throughout the southern half of the State, along with Marshall and Lafayette counties in the northcentral part of the State, and Washington country in the Mississippi River Delta

       


       

      Identification

      Leaves:

      Type: simple; alternate, persisten 
      Size: 5.0” - 8.0” long; 2.0” - 3.0” wide 

      Margin: entire

      Apex: bluntly pointed; rarely sharp pointed

      Base: wedge-shaped

      Shape: oval, ovate, oblong

      Color: dark green above; rusty red below

      Surface: shiny above; pubescent (woolly hairs) below

      Venation: pinnate

      Twigs:

      Size: moderately stout

      Color: rusty red

      Surface: tomentose (woolly hairs); leaf scars shield-shaped; bundle scars in a marginal row; stipule scars encircle twig above leaf scar

      Buds:

      Size: terminal 1.0” – 1.5” long; laterals smaller

      Shape: ovoid

      Color: pale or rusty

      Surface: pubescent (woolly)

      Fruit and Flowers:

      Nut: hairy; seed, suspended from open pods by slender elastic thread

      Size: 3.0” - 4.0” long, 1.5” - 2.0” dia.; seed 0.5” long

      Shape: ovoid to cylindrical; seed slightly flattened

      Color: orange-red; seed, red

      Flower: monoecious; perfect; on stout, hairy stalks, 6.0” – 8.0” dia.; petals (6,9, or 12), white, 3.0” – 4.0” long; showy; very fragrant

       

      Physical Attributes:

      Form: single stem

      Size: 100.0’, mature

      Growth Rate: 40.0’ maximum @ 20 yrs

      Life Span: (>100 yrs)

      Tolerances:
      Shade: high
      Drought: low
      Fire: low
      Anaerobic: low

       

      Propagation: seed (cold stratification required); bare root; container (air-layering, stem cuttings, and grafts have all been used to propagate the species for ornamental plantings)

      Other: resprout/coppice potential


       


      Uses

      Wildlife Value and Uses:
      Used by squirrel, opossum, quail, and turkey

       

      Timber Value and Uses: cut in limited quantities for timber; furniture, paneling, veneer, cabinet work

       

      Landscaping Info: one of the South’s finest semi-evergreens; valuable and extensively planted ornamental; good in urban areas --- resistant to damage by sulfur dioxide

       

      Other Facts: leaves, fruits, bark and wood yield a variety of extracts with potential applications as pharmaceuticals

       

      Reference: Hodges, J.D., Evans, D.L., Garnett, L.W. (N.D.) Mississippi Trees. Mississippi Forestry Commission, Jackson, MS.

    5. Green Ash

      Green Ash

      Fraxinus pennsylvanica 
      Family: Oleaceae


       

      Habitat and Ecology:

      Site: most frequently along streams and alluvial floodplains where frequent inundation occurs in winter and spring; can also be found on dry and severe upland sites

      Soil Texture: fine - coarse

      Soil pH: 5.0 - 8.0

      Range: central Motana and northeastern Wyoming; south to southeastern Texas; east to northwestern Florida; north to Nova Scotia; in Mississippi, throughout

       


       

      Identification

      Leaves:

      Type: pinnately compound, opposite, deciduous 
      Size: 10.0” - 12.0” long; leaflets (5-9), 2.0” - 4.0” long, 1.0” - 1.5” wide; leaflet stalks 0.13” - 0.5” long 

      Margin: entire or slightly toothed

      Apex: narrow slender pointed

      Base: unequally cuneate

      Shape: ovate to elliptical

      Color: dark green above; paler green below

      Surface: lustrous above; pubescent along veins below

      Venation: pinnate

      Twigs:

      Size: moderately stout; often flattened at node

      Color: grayish green

      Surface: glabrous; leaf scars half-round, and flat instead of notched, buds on top of scars

      Buds:

      Size: 0.13”

      Shape: nearly globular

      Color: rusty brown

      Surface: 4 scales

      Fruit and Flowers:

      Samara: large clusters

      Size: 1.0” - 2.0” long

      Shape: paddle-shaped; wing encloses approximately 50% of seed

      Color: brown

      Flower: similar to white ash (dioecious, apetalous; staminate purplish red, 0.25” long in compound clusters; pistillate, 2 dark purple stigmatic lobes)

       

      Physical Attributes:

      Form: single stem

      Size: 70.0’, mature

      Growth Rate: 35.0’ maximum @ 20 yrs

      Life Span: (>100 yrs)

      Tolerances:
      Shade: high
      Drought: medium
      Fire: medium
      Anaerobic: low

       

      Propagation: seed (cold stratification required); bare root; container

      Other: resprout/coppice potential


       


      Uses

      Wildlife Value and Uses:
      seeds eaten by a number of game and nongame animals and birds; especially important for wildlife communities in the northern Great Plains; medium palatability as browse; protein potential is low; attracts birds, rabbit, deer, squirrel, and sharptail grouse

       

      Timber Value and Uses: wood is coarse-grained, heavy, hard, and strong; sapwood is white; used to make tool handles, furniture, and interior furnishings; widely used in revegetation of spoil banks created from strip mining; high value as fuelwood

       

      Landscaping Info: popular as a shade tree in residential areas because of its good form, adaptability to a wide range of sites, and relative freedom from insects and diseases

       

      Other Facts: utilized by the Native Americans of the Great Plains to make bows, arrows, drums, tent poles, tepee pegs, and meat-drying racks; believed to have beneficial natural powers and was often used to carry and/or display ceremonial or symbolic objects; Cheyenne Contrary Warriors reportedly wore whistles made of green ash around their necks Mississippi: Sharkey County is home to the Green Ash Research Natural Area. The vegetation of this area is dominated by Nuttall oak (Texas red oak), green ash, and American elm. There are old-growth green ash trees between 200 and 250 years old in the area.

       

      Reference: Hodges, J.D., Evans, D.L., Garnett, L.W. (N.D.) Mississippi Trees. Mississippi Forestry Commission, Jackson, MS.

    6. Bald cypress

      Bald Cypress

      Taxodium distichem 
      Family: Taxodiaceae


       

      Habitat and Ecology:

      Site: typically found in permanent swamps in pure stands or with water tupelo; on slightly higher sites found with bottomland hardwoods; best site is deep, moist, sandy loam --- but cannot compete with hardwoods on these “best” sites

      Soil pH: 4.5 - 6.0

      Range: Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plains, lower Mississippi River Valley and bottom lands of adjacent drainages; in Mississippi, scattered throughout

       


       

      Identification

      Needles:

      Type: spiral, 2-ranked in one plane, deciduous along with supporting twigs 
      Size: 0.50” - 0.75” 

      Color: yellow-green

      Surface: feathery; linear; flat

      Twigs:

      Size: slender

      Color: light green-tan, becoming reddish brown

      Surface: somewhat rough; fibrous

      Buds:

      Size: small

      Shape: globular

      Color: reddish brown

      Surface: several overlapping pointed scales

      Cones:

      Pollen Cones: monoecious; produced in elongated, drooping catkins, 3.0” - 5.0” long
      Ovulate Conesmonoecious; composed of several green, overlapping scales, fused at base; solitary or in clusters (2-3) near ends of previous year’s twigs; 0.25” long
      Mature Cones:

      Size: 0.75” - 1.0” dia. 
      Shape: nearly globular 
      Characteristics: yellow-brown; leathery; disintegrates at maturity; scales club-shaped

      Seeds: 3-winged; irregularly 3-angled

       

      Bark: ashy gray to reddish brown; coarsely

      fissured; scaly plates; peels into fibrous strips

      Physical Attributes:

      Form: single stem

      Size: 130.0’, mature

      Growth Rate: 45.0’ maximum @ 20 yrs

      Life Span: (>100 yrs)

      Tolerances:
      Shade: medium
      Drought: low
      Fire: low
      Anaerobic: high

       

      Propagation: seed (cold stratification required); bare root; container

      Other: resprout/coppice potential


       


      Uses

      Wildlife Value and Uses:
      seeds eaten by wild turkey, wood ducks, evening grosbeak, squirrels, waterfowl and wading birds; cypress domes provide unique watering places for a variety of birds and mammals and breeding sites for frogs, toads, salamanders and other reptiles; tops provide nesting sites for bald eagles, ospreys, herons and egrets; yellowthroated warblers forage in the Spanish moss often found hanging on the branches

       

      Timber Value and Uses: heartwood is second only to redwood in resistance to decay; has always been in demand for construction timbers, docks, exterior siding, and any similar use where its many unique qualities are an asset; potential for rehabilitating margins of surface-mined lakes; environmentally, riverine swamps of bald cypress reduce damage from floods and act as sediment and pollutant traps

       

      Landscaping Info: stately and formal yearround appearance; strongly pyramidal; rapid growth and establishment; wet-site-loving and dry-site-adaptable; ultra-fine-textured foliage (resulting in dappled shade in youth); exfoliating strips of subtly ornamental cinnamon bark; rich cinnamon-brown autumn leaf color; leaf cleanup in autumn minimal or not needed; bark and wood is processed from natural stands in the southeastern U.S. as a slow-decaying, orange-brown mulch

       

      Other Facts: resin from cones used locally as an analgesic of skin lesions; knees are collected and used to create tourist appeal crafts; one of the most prized and valuable trees in the original forests of the South; many averaged over 500 yrs old, and often 6 to 8 feet dia.

       

      Reference: Hodges, J.D., Evans, D.L., Garnett, L.W. (N.D.) Mississippi Trees. Mississippi Forestry Commission, Jackson, MS.

    7. Loblolly Pine

      Loblolly Pine

      Pinus taeda L. 
      Family: Pinaceae


       

      Habitat and Ecology:

      Site: widely scattered on a variety of sites in the coastal plains and lower Piedmont Plateau in pure or mixed stands; aggressive on fallow fields or cutover sites

      Soil Texture: fine - coarse

      Soil pH: 4.5 - 7.0

      Range: southern New Jersey; south to central Florida; west to southeastern Texas and southern Oklahoma; in Mississippi throughout with the exception of the Mississippi River Delta counties

       


       

      Identification

      Needles:

      Type: needles; 3 per fascicle; evergreen; persistent for 3 seasons
      Size: needles 6.0” - 9.0”; fascicle sheaths 0.25” - 0.5” long

      Color: dark green; new growth lighter

      Characteristics: stout; stiff; straight; lustrous new growth; dull older growth

      Twigs:

      Size: moderately stout

      Color: greenish brown; then light brown

      Surface: rough, flaky on young branches; smooth on older branches

      Buds:

      Size: 0.75” - 1.0” long

      Shape: scales wedge-shaped

      Color: reddish brown scales

      Surface: scales free; commonly reflexed at tips

      Cones:

      Pollen Cones: yellow-green; 1.0” - 1.5” long; in large compact clusters at base of terminal buds

      Ovulate Cones: pale green; in pairs of 3 to 4 per cluster; slightly stalked

      Mature Cones:

      Size: cone 3.0” - 6.0” long

      Shape: ovoid-conical

      Characteristics: reddish brown; sessile; flattened; wrinkled, armed on the back with a short, stout, sharp spine; scales thin, exposed portions of closed cone tawny

      Seed: winged; 0.25” long; dark brown, black mottles; wings yellowish brown to gray-black, 0.75” long; widest above middle

       

      Bark: dark gray to nearly black on young trees; older trees dark reddish brown, large flat rectangular plates

      Physical Attributes:

      Form: single stem

      Size: 100.0’, mature

      Growth Rate: rapid; 50.0’ maximum @ 20 yrs

      Life Span: moderate (>50 yrs)

      Tolerances:
      Shade: intolerant
      Drought: low
      Fire: high
      Anaerobic: high

       

      Propagation: seed (cold stratification required); bare root; container

      Other: no resprout/coppice potential except for young seedlings


       


      Uses

      Wildlife Value and Uses:
      primary game species that inhabit pine and pine-hardwood forests include white-tailed deer, gray and fox squirrel, bobwhite quail, wild turkey, mourning dove, and rabbit; some species utilize the habitat through all stages of stand development; others attracted for a short time during a particular stage of development; chief habitat for the pine warbler, brown-headed nuthatch, and Bachman's warbler; old-growth stands important to the existence of the red-cockaded woodpecker; important nesting site for ospreys and the bald eagle

       

      Timber Value and Uses: most commercially important forest species in the southern United States; makes up over one-half of the standing pine volume; used for lumber, construction timbers, pulp, and plywood; considered inferior in quality to longleaf or shortleaf but used similarly

       

      Landscaping Info: often used in urban forestry as shade trees, and for wind and noise barriers throughout the South; used extensively for soil stabilization; provides rapid growth and site occupancy

       

      Other Facts: biomass for energy currently obtained from precommercial thinnings and logging residue; utilization of these sources will undoubtedly increase, and loblolly pine energy plantations may become a reality

       

      Reference: Hodges, J.D., Evans, D.L., Garnett, L.W. (N.D.) Mississippi Trees. Mississippi Forestry Commission, Jackson, MS.

    8. Willow Oak

      Willow Oak

      Quercus phellos L. 
      Family: Fagaceae


       

      Habitat and Ecology:

      Site: moist, alluvial soils along streams and rivers; commonly found in transitional communities between swamps and upland mesic forests

      Soil Texture: fine - medium

      Soil pH: 4.5 - 5.5

      Range: New York; west to Missouri; south to Texas; east to Florida; north to Delaware; in Mississippi, throughout

       


       

      Identification

      Leaves:

      Type: simple, alternate, deciduous
      Size: 2.0” - 5.0” long; 0.5” -1.0” wide

      Margin: entire

      Apex: acute; bristle-tipped

      Base: acute

      Shape: narrowly oblong or lanceolate

      Color: light green above; paler green below

      Surface: slightly shiny above; glabrous or pubescent below

      Venation: pinnate

      Twigs:

      Size: slender

      Color: reddish brown

      Surface: glabrous

      Buds:

      Size: terminal bud, 0.13” long; laterals smaller

      Shape: ovoid; apex acute

      Color: chestnut brown

      Surface: glabrous

      Fruit and Flowers:

      Nut: acorn, biennial; cup, shallow, saucershaped, scales and inner surface pubescent, covers up to 33% of nut

      Size: 0.38” - 0.50” long

      Shape: nearly oval

      Color: brown; faint stripes

      Flower: monoecious; unisexual; staminate, hairy, yellow, catkins, 2.0” - 3.0” long, on slender stalks; pistillate flowers, solitary or in pairs, on short stalks

       

      Bark: dark gray; smooth; darker with age; deep furrows; rough ridges; pink inner bark

      Physical Attributes:

      Form: single stem

      Size: 80.0’ – 130.0’, mature

      Growth Rate: 60.0’ maximum @ 20 yrs

      Life Span: (>100 yrs)

      Tolerances:
      Shade: low
      Drought: low
      Fire: medium
      Anaerobic: medium

       

      Propagation: seed (cold stratification required); bare root; container

      Other: resprout/coppice potential


       


      Uses

      Wildlife Value and Uses:
      important food source for waterfowl, wild turkey, blue jays, red-headed and red-bellied woodpeckers, flickers, grackles, white-tailed deer, fox, gray squirrel, and other small rodents; good browse for white-tailed deer

       

      Timber Value and Uses: important source of lumber and pulp; good pulp characteristics and can be harvested when quite young; restoration of the wetter sites of bottomland hardwood forests and for rehabilitation of disturbed areas

       

      Landscaping Info: widely used as a shade tree and ornamental; transplants easily; routinely commercially available

       

      Other Facts: susceptible to acid rain --- show yellow or brown necrotic zones when exposed to simulated rain less than 3.2 pH.

       

      Reference: Hodges, J.D., Evans, D.L., Garnett, L.W. (N.D.) Mississippi Trees. Mississippi Forestry Commission, Jackson, MS.

    9. White Oak

      White Oak

      Quercus alba L. 
      Family: Fagaceae


       

      Habitat and Ecology:

      Site: found on many soil types, best on coarse, deep, moist, well-drained soils, with medium fertility, and slightly acid soil

      Soil Texture: medium - coarse

      Soil pH: 4.5 - 6.8

      Range: Maine to Minnesota; south to Florida; west to Texas; in Mississippi, throughout the State, the primary exception being the Mississippi River Delta counties, and a band across the north-central part of the State associated with Blackland Prairie soils

       


       

      Identification

      Leaves:

      Type: simple, alternate, deciduous
      Size: 5.0” - 9.0” long; 2.0” - 4.0” wide

      Margin: deeply lobed (7-9); oblique, rounded sinuses nearly to midrib

      Apex: rounded; usually 3-lobed

      Base: cuneate

      Shape: obovate/oblong

      Color: bright green above; light green to whitish below

      Surface: smooth above and below

      Venation: pinnate

      Twigs:

      Size: slender

      Color: red-brown to somewhat gray

      Surface: initially pubescent; then glabrous

      Buds:

      Size: 0.12” - 0.19” long

      Shape: ovoid, apex obtuse

      Color: dark reddish brown

      Surface: glabrous

      Fruit and Flowers:

      Nut: acorn, annual; cup bowl-shaped, thick warty scales, covers 25% of nut

      Size: 0.5” - 1.0” long

      Shape: oval

      Color: shiny brown

      Flower: monoecious; unisexual; staminate, loose, pendulous, yellow, catkins, 3.0” long; pistillate flowers, bright red, short-stalked, solitary

       

      Bark: whitish or ashy gray; varies from scaly to irregularly platy or blocky; smooth patches on older trees not uncommon

      Physical Attributes:

      Form: single stem

      Size: 60.0’ - 100.0’, mature

      Growth Rate: slow; 20.0’ maximum @ 20 yrs

      Life Span: long (>100 yrs)

      Tolerances:
      Shade: intermediate
      Drought: moderate
      Fire: medium
      Anaerobic: none

       

      Propagation: seed (cold stratification not required); bare root; container

      Other: resprout/coppice potential


       


      Uses

      Wildlife Value and Uses:
      acorns eaten by squirrel, blue jays, crows, red-headed woodpeckers, deer, turkey, quail, mice, chipmunks, ducks and raccoon; browse palatability medium

       

      Timber Value and Uses: the most important timber oak; commercially important throughout much of the South and East; strong and durable wood for furniture, veneer, paneling, and flooring, staves for barrels, lumber, and interior woodwork; also used for specialty items such as wine and whiskey barrels; fuelwood product value is high

       

      Landscaping Info: excellent tree because of its broad round crown, dense foliage, and purplish red to violet-purple fall color; difficult to transplant; growth slow; existing trees very sensitive to disturbances in root zones caused by grading, soil compaction, or changes in drainage patterns - if severe can lead to mortality

       

      Other Facts: used medicinally by Native Americans

       

      Reference: Hodges, J.D., Evans, D.L., Garnett, L.W. (N.D.) Mississippi Trees. Mississippi Forestry Commission, Jackson, MS.

    10. Ginkgo

      Ginkgo

      Ginkgo biloba 
      Family: Ginkgoaceae


       

      Habitat and Ecology:

      Site: 

      Soil Texture: sandy

      Soil pH: alkaline or acidic

      Range: USDA zones 3-8

       


       

      Identification

      Type: Simple, alternate, deciduous
      Size: 2” - 3” long

      Margin: Irregular, 2 – 3 lobes

      Apex: broad, wavy

      Base: acute

      Shape: Fan-shaped

      Color: Green

      Surface: Leathery

      Venation: Fanlike or diverging

      Twigs: Light reddish brown becoming gray with spur shoots

      Buds: Broadly conical to dome-shaped and reddish brown

      Fruit and Flowers:

      Size: Like a naked seed 1” long with fleshy covering that develops into an unpleasant odor when it drops. Inner seed is edible, maturing in fall.

      Shape: Round

      Color: Green

      Flower: Dioecious, male catkins about 1”, female cones 1” – 2” peduncles bearing 1 to 2 ovules, present in mid-spring

       

      Bark: Light gray brown with irregular ridges, eventually becoming deeply furrowed

      Physical Attributes:

      Form: Narrow, oval crown when young, eventually developing an irregular, much broader crown of a few large branches.

      Size: 50.0’ – 80.0’

      Tolerances: Tolerant of saline conditions, air pollution and hear.

       

      Propagation: Tolerates a range of soil conditions and urban stresses. Prefers medium moisture and full sun.


       


      Uses

      Wildlife Value and Uses:
      None

       

      Timber Value and Uses: None

       

      Landscaping Info: No serious insect or disease problems. Usually slow growing, with initial growth being somewhat sparse.

       

      Other Facts: Although exotic, it is not known to escape cultivation

       

      Reference: Missouri Botanical Garden Plant Finder http://www.missouribotanicalgarden.org/PlantFinder/PlantFinderDetails.aspx?taxonid=280988&isprofile=1&basic=ginkgo Virginia Tech Dendrology http://dendro.cnre.vt.edu/dendrology/syllabus/factsheet.cfm?ID=122

    11. Southern Pecan

      Southern Pecan

      Carya illinoinensis 
      Family: juglandaceae


       

      Habitat and Ecology:

      Site: commonly on well-drained loam soils not subject to prolonged flooding; does appear on heavy textured soils, but is limited to alluvial soils of recent origin with best development on the ridges and well-drained flats

      Soil Texture: fine - coarse

      Soil pH: 5.0 - 7.3

      Range: principally in the lower Mississippi Valley;southwestern Indiana to southeastern Iowa; south through western Tennessee to central Alabama; west to east and central Texas; north to southeastern Kansas; also grows locally in northeastern and central Mexico; in Mississippi, reported by the NRCS Plants Database in the counties of Desoto, Lafayette, Union, Wayne, Coahoma, Boliver, Washington, Holmes, Yazoo, Warren, Madison, Copiah, Wilkinson, and Amite; planted/naturalized throughout much of the southeastern U.S.

       


       

      Identification

      Type: pinnately compound, alternate, deciduous
      Size: 10.0” - 20.0” long; leaflets (9-17), 4.0” - 8.0” long, 1.0” - 2.0 ” wide

      Margin: serrate or doubly serrate

      Apex: acuminate

      Base: unequally rounded or wedge-shaped

      Shape: lanceolate

      Color: dark yellowish green above; paler green below

      Surface: glabrous above; pubescent early, then glabrous below

      Venation: pinnate

      Twigs:

      Size: moderately stout

      Color: reddish brown; orange-brown lenticels

      Surface: pubescent

      Buds:

      Size: 0.5” long

      Shape: acute

      Color: yellowish brown

      Surface: valvate scales

      Fruit and Flowers:

      Nut: husk thin-skinned; 4-winged from base to apex

      Size: 1.5” - 2.5” long

      Shape: ellipsoidal; smooth or slightly 4-ridged

      Color: reddish brown

      Flower: monoecious; unisexual; staminate, 3-branched, green catkins, 3.0” - 5.0” long; pistillate, in few- to several-flowered spikes, yellow, hairy, slightly 4-angled

       

      Bark: light brown to gray-brown; narrow fissures; flattened, interlacing, scaly ridges

      Physical Attributes:

      Form: single stem

      Size: 140.0’, mature

      Growth Rate: slow; 35.0’ maximum @ 20 yrs

      Life Span: long (>100 yrs)

      Tolerances:
      Shade: intolerant
      Drought: low
      Fire: low
      Anaerobic: none

       

      Propagation: seed (no cold stratification required); bare root; container

      Other: resprout/coppice potential


       


      Uses

      Wildlife Value and Uses:
      nuts eaten by a number of birds; also fox and gray squirrel, opossum, raccoon, and peccaries

       

      Timber Value and Uses: furniture, cabinetry, paneling, pallets, and veneer; commercial edible nut

       

      Landscaping Info: excellent multipurpose tree for the home landscape; planted throughout the South as an ornamental and for its fruit; will grow over a wide range of soil textures and pH values; subject to breakage; high maintenance (spraying) due to numerous pest and disease problems

       

      Other Facts: native pecans were present over wide areas when settlers arrived in America; native pecans used as sources of new varieties and as stock for selected clones.

       

      Reference: Hodges, J.D., Evans, D.L., Garnett, L.W. (N.D.) Mississippi Trees. Mississippi Forestry Commission, Jackson, MS.

    12. Yellow Poplar

      Yellow-poplar

      Liriodendron tulipifera 
      Family: Magnoliaceae


       

      Habitat and Ecology:

      Site: moist, well-drained sites; along streams, bottoms, lower upland slopes, and rich coves; often forming small pure thickets during juvenile period, but only as an occasional stem in old stands

      Soil Texture: medium - coarse

      Soil pH: 4.5 - 6.5

      Range: southern New England; west to Michigan, south to Florida, and west to Louisiana; in Mississippi, throughout

       


       

      Identification

      Leaves:

      Type: simple, alternate, deciduous
      Size: 4.0” - 6.0” long and broad

      Margin: usually 4-lobed; margin of the lobes entire

      Apex: flattened or notched

      Base: flattened or somewhat rounded

      Shape: tuliplike

      Color: dark green above; paler below

      Surface: lustrous, smooth above; glabrous below

      Venation: pinnate

      Twigs:

      Size: slender to moderately stout

      Color: reddish brown; sometimes with a purplish bloom

      Surface: glabrous; leaf scars nearly circular; stipule scars encircling the twig causes jointed appearance; numerous small lenticels

      Buds:

      Size: terminal bud 0.5” long; laterals smaller

      Shape: long, flattened; 2 outer valvate scales, “duck bill” appearance

      Color: mixed; green, purplish, brownish red

      Surface: dark, covered by a glaucous bloom

      Fruit and Flowers:

      Aggregate: cone-like cluster of numerous, dry, terminally winged samaras

      Size: samaras 1.50” long

      Shape: narrow, upright

      Color: light brown

      Flower: monoecious; perfect; tulip-shaped, 1.5” - 2.0” dia., light green, bright orange scallop at base; 6 petals in 2 rows

       

      Bark: young trees, smooth, light gray, with small white patches; older bark, gray, thick, deeply furrowed

      Physical Attributes:

      Form: single stem

      Size: 120.0’, mature

      Growth Rate: 50.0’ maximum @ 20 yrs

      Life Span: (>50 yrs)

      Tolerances:
      Shade: low
      Drought: medium
      Fire: low
      Anaerobic: low

       

      Propagation: seed (cold stratification required); bare root; container

      Other: resprout/coppice potential


       


      Uses

      Wildlife Value and Uses:
      some wildlife value; fruits provide food for squirrel in the late fall and winter months, and white-tailed deer often browse on the twigs; flower nectar is an important food source for bees in the spring; host plant for tiger and spicebush swallowtail butterflies

       

      Timber Value and Uses: one of the most important southern hardwoods; large volumes harvested for veneer, manufacture of furniture, and pulpwood; planted for reforestation purposes because of its rapid growth and the commercial importance of its wood

       

      Landscaping Info: desirable street, shade, or ornamental tree; mature size makes it unsuited for many sites; pluses include rapid growth, pyramidal form, resistance to insect and disease damage, unusual leaves and attractive flowers, and yellow autumnal color; minuses --- prone to wind and ice damage in exposed situations.

       

      Other Facts: wood produces bitter alkaloid chemical called tulipferene which is a heart stimulant; root of the tuliptree can be used as a lemon-like flavoring agent in spruce beer; historically, tea made from the bark used externally as a wash and a poultice on wounds and boils, and also brewed to produce an aromatic stimulant tonic for the treatment of rheumatism, chronic gastric and intestinal diseases, dysentery, coughs, and hysteria; root bark and seeds used to expel worms from the body; Native Americans and early pioneers frequently hollowed out a single log to make a long dugout canoe, giving it the common name “canoe tree” in some regions; purported that Daniel Boone made a 60 foot long canoe from a single tulip tree

       

      Reference: Hodges, J.D., Evans, D.L., Garnett, L.W. (N.D.) Mississippi Trees. Mississippi Forestry Commission, Jackson, MS.

    13. Sweetbay magnolia

      Sweetbay Magnolia

      Magnolia virginiana L. 
      Family: Magnoliaceae


       

      Habitat and Ecology:

      Site: low, wet, sandy woodlands, river floodplains, and shrub swamps, occasionally in thickets

      Soil Texture: fine - coarse

      Soil pH: 5.0 - 6.9

      Range: Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plains from Long Island south through New Jersey and southeastern Pennsylvania to southern Florida; west to eastern Texas, and north into southern Arkansas and southwest Tennessee; also isolated portions of eastern Massachusetts from older ornamental plantings; most abundant in Alabama, Georgia, Florida, and South Carolina; in Mississippi, primarily in the southeastern half of the State and the southern coastal counties; also reported in Tippah, Tishomingo, Lee, Itawamba, Monroe, and Lafayette counties in the northeastern corner of the State

       


       

      Identification

      Leaves:

      Type: simple, alternate, persistent
      Size: 4.0” - 6.0” long; 1.0” - 3.0” wide

      Margin: entire to somewhat wavy

      Apex: entire to somewhat wavy

      Base: wedge-shaped

      Shape: oblong to elliptical

      Color: dull green above; silvery below

      Surface: lustrous above; pubescent below, aromatic spicy odor

      Venation: pinnate

      Twigs:

      Size: slender

      Color: bright green first winter; reddish brown

      Surface: hairy, then smooth after first winter; crescent-shaped leaf scars; stipule scars encircle twig; pith diaphragmed

      Buds:

      Size: terminal bud 0.75” long; laterals smaller

      Shape: ovoid

      Color: whitish

      Surface: fine silky hairs

      Fruit and Flowers:

      Aggregate of follicles: seed, suspended from open pods by slender elastic thread

      Size: 2.0” long, 1.0” dia.; seeds 0.25” long,

      Shape: ovoid to ellipsoidal; seeds oval, flattened

      Color: red; seeds red

      Flower: monoecious; perfect; on short, slender, smooth stalks; white; 2.0”-3.0” dia.; petals, 9 or 12, obovate; fragrant

       

      Bark: thin; gray; smooth or irregularly furrowed; superficially scaly; aromatic when crushed

      Physical Attributes:

      Form: single stem

      Size: 60.0’, mature

      Growth Rate: 40.0’ maximum @ 20 yrs

      Life Span: (>50 yrs)

      Tolerances:
      Shade: medium
      Drought: low
      Fire: low
      Anaerobic: low

       

      Propagation: seed (cold stratification required); bare root; container; cuttings

      Other: resprout/coppice potential


       


      Uses

      Wildlife Value and Uses:
      favorite food of deer and cattle; leaves and twigs browsed by deer year-round; contains as much as 10 percent crude protein; seeds are a favorite food of the gray squirrel; also eaten by white-footed mice, wild turkey, quail, and songbirds

       

      Timber Value and Uses: little economic importance for timber product; when large enough it is harvested and utilized for the same purposes as other magnolias

       

      Landscaping Info: used as a landscape accent for its open form and fragrant flowers; generally commercially available

       

      Other Facts: in Florida, a form with narrow leaves and woolly twigs and fruit has been observed, and designated M. virginiana var. australis Sarg.

       

      Reference: Hodges, J.D., Evans, D.L., Garnett, L.W. (N.D.) Mississippi Trees. Mississippi Forestry Commission, Jackson, MS.

    14. Common fig

      Common Fig

      Ficus carica 
      Family: Moraceae


       

      Habitat and Ecology:

      Site: moist, rich soil, well-drained

      Soil Texture: loamy

      Range: Native to Mediterranean, USDA Zones 8-10, warm summers and temperate winters

       


       

      Identification

      Leaves:

      Type: simple, alternate, deciduous
      Size: 4.7” – 9.8” long, 3.9”-7.1” across

      Margin: 3 to 5 lobes with dee sinuses

      Apex: rounded

      Base: flat – heart-shaped

      Color: light green above; paler below

      Fruit and Flowers:

      Fruit: not really a fruit, it is a infructesccence (false fruit)

      Size: 1.0”-2.0” long

      Shape: bell-shaped

      Color: green, ripening to purple brown, sap is irritant to human skin

      Flower: dioecious; syconium lined with unisexual flowers

       

      Bark: smooth, white

      Physical Attributes:

      Form: single stem

      Size: 20’, mature

       

      Propagation: seed (no cold stratification required); bare root; container; cuttings

      Other: No series insect or disease problems, although nematodes, scale, aphids can be problematic. Specific epithet refers to Caria, a district in Asia Minor known for growing figs.


       


      Uses

      Ornamental or fruit tree

       

      Reference: http://www.missouribotanicalgarden.org/PlantFinder/PlantFinderDetails.aspx?kempercode=c944

    15. Saucer magnolia

      Saucer Magnolia

      Magnolia x soulangeana 
      Family: Magnoliaceae


       

      Habitat and Ecology:

      Site: moist sites

      Soil Texture: organically rich, well-drained loams

      Soil pH: acidic

      Range: 4-9

       


       

      Identification

      Leaves:

      Type: simple, alternate, persistent
      Size: 2.0” - 4.0” long; 1.0” - 3.0” wide

      Margin: entire to somewhat wavy

      Apex: entire to somewhat wavy

      Base: wedge-shaped

      Shape: oblong to elliptical

      Color: dull green above; silvery below

      Surface: lustrous above; pubescent below, aromatic spicy odor

      Venation: pinnate

      Twigs:

      Size: slender

      Color: bright green first winter; reddish brown

      Surface: hairy, then smooth after first winter; crescent-shaped leaf scars; stipule scars encircle twig; pith diaphragmed

      Buds:

      Size: terminal bud 0.75” long; laterals smaller

      Shape: ovoid

      Color: whitish

      Surface: fine silky hairs

      Fruit and Flowers:

      Aggregate of follicles: seed, suspended from open pods by slender elastic thread

      Size: 2.0” long, 1.0” dia.; seeds 0.25” long,

      Shape: ovoid to ellipsoidal; seeds oval, flattened

      Color: red; seeds red

      Flower: monoecious; perfect; on short, slender, smooth stalks; white; 2.0”-3.0” dia.; petals, 9 or 12, obovate; fragrant

       

      Bark: thin; gray; smooth or irregularly furrowed; superficially scaly; aromatic when crushed

      Physical Attributes:

      Form: single stem, rounded crown

      Size: 20.0’ – 25.0’

      Tolerances: No series problems or pests
      Shade: medium
      Drought: low
      Fire: low

       

      Propagation: Moist, acidic, organically rich, well-drained loams in full sun to part shade. Generally intolerant of soil extremes (dry or wet)

      Other: Deciduous hybrid magnolia (M. denudata x M. liliiflora)


       


      Uses

      Common landscape tree. No serious problems or pests.

       

      Reference: Missouri Botanical Garden Plant Finder http://www.missouribotanicalgarden.org/PlantFinder/PlantFinderDetails.aspx?kempercode=a885

    16. Japanese maple

      Japanese Maple

      Acer palmatum 
      Family: Sapindaceae


       

      Habitat and Ecology:

      Site: moist site

      Soil Texture: sandy loams

      Soil pH: slightly acidic

      Range: 5-8

       


       

      Identification

      Leaves:

      Type: Simple, opposite
      Size: 2” – 5” long

      Margin: Serrated, 5 – 7 palmate lobes

      Apex: Acute

      Base: Heart-shaped

      Shape: palmate

      Color: green then deep red

      Venation: Palmate

      Twigs:

      Size: slender

      Color: Red or green

      Surface: Glabrous

      Buds:

      Shape: Conical

      Color: Green or red

      Surface: Base of bud hidden by tan, fuzzy fringe

      Fruit and Flowers:

      Species is monoecious; inconspicuous, small, red to purple, in terminal hanging clusters, appearing in mid to late spring.
      Fruit: Double Samara

      Size: 3/4” – 1” long

      Color: Reddish brown, maturing in late summer, somewhat persistent

      Flower: Monoecious, inconspicuous, small, red to purpole

       

      Bark: Smooth, light gray, with a somewhat fluted trunk

      Physical Attributes:

      Form: Small, round crown

      Size: 10.0’ – 25.0’

       

      Propagation: Moist, organically rich, slightly acidic, well-drained soils in full sun to part shade.

      Other: No serious insect or disease problems.


       


      Uses

      Landscaping:
      Generally grown for garden objectives, attractive foliage, and shape.

       

      Reference: Missouri Botanical Garden Plant Finder http://www.missouribotanicalgarden.org/PlantFinder/PlantFinderDetails.aspx?kempercode=b974 Virginia Tech Dendrology http://dendro.cnre.vt.edu/dendrology/syllabus/factsheet.cfm?ID=122

    17. Slash pine

      Slash Pine

      Pinus elliottii 
      Family: Pinaceae


       

      Habitat and Ecology:

      Site: low ground; swamps, hammocks, along streams; often invasive on abandoned fields

      Soil Texture: fine - medium

      Soil pH: 4.0 - 6.4

      Range: grows naturally from Georgetown County, SC, south to central Florida, and west to Tangipahoa Parish, LA; native range includes the lower Coastal Plain, part of the middle Coastal Plain, and the hills of south Georgia; established (by planting) as far north as Tennessee, in north central Georgia, and Alabama; planted and direct-seeded in Louisiana and eastern Texas where it now reproduces naturally; in Mississippi, reported by the NRCS Plants Database primarily in the coastal counties

       


       

      Identification

      Needles:

      Type: 2-3 per fascicle; evergreen; persistent for 2 seasons
      Size: 7.0” - 12.0” long; fascicle sheaths 0.5” - 0.75” long

      Color: dark green

      Characteristics: shiny; short; stiff; straight

      Twigs:

      Size: stout

      Color: light orange-brown

      Characteristics: rough; ridged by compact arrangement of needles and scales

      Buds:

      Size: 0.5” - 0.75” long

      Shape: elliptic - ovate

      Color: rusty brown

      Surface: free at tips

      Cones:

      Pollen Cones: purplish brown; 0.5” - 2.0” long; dense clusters at base of terminal buds

      Ovulate Cones: pinkish purple; at tip of elongating twigs; solitary or paired

      Mature Cones:

      Size: 3.0” - 7.0” long

      Shape: ovoid to elongated, cylindrical

      Characteristics: lustrous tan scales; scale prickle small recurved; not extremely sharp

      Seed: 0.25” long; black ridged; triangular; wing 1.0” long, translucent, thin, encircles seed

       

      Bark: dark reddish brown, furrowed, rough young; orange-brown, broad flat scaly plates mature

      Physical Attributes:

      Form: single stem

      Size: 100.0’, mature

      Growth Rate: 60.0’ maximum @ 20 yrs

      Life Span: (>100 yrs)

      Tolerances:
      Shade: low
      Drought: low
      Fire: low
      Anaerobic: medium

       

      Propagation: seed (cold stratification required); bare root; container

      Other: no resprout/coppice potential


       


      Uses

      Wildlife Value and Uses:
      seeds are an excellent food source for gray and fox squirrel and wild turkey; dense foliage provides protective cover for many wildlife species during inclement weather

       

      Timber Value and Uses: major source of naval stores ( turpentine, and rosin); used for a variety of other purposes including poles, railroad ties, and pilings; planted to stabilize the soil on eroding slopes and strip mine spoil banks, where its rapid early growth is an advantage over slower growing species

       

      Landscaping Info: adaptable to a variety of site and topographic conditions, but grows best on pond margins and in drainages where soil moisture is ample but not excessive and the soil is well aerated; a number of cultivars and improved materials are available

       

      Other Facts: The naval stores industry is one of the oldest in the United States, and has supplied a large portion of the resin and turpentine used throughout the world since colonial times. In many early forests, gum was the primary and sometimes the only product harvested.

       

      Reference: Hodges, J.D., Evans, D.L., Garnett, L.W. (N.D.) Mississippi Trees. Mississippi Forestry Commission, Jackson, MS.

    18. Eastern Red Cedar

      Eastern Red Cedar

      Juniperus virginiana L. 
      Family: Cupressaceae


       

      Habitat and Ecology:

      Site: found on wide variety of soils; best growth on light, calcareous loams; most abundant, however, on dry, shallow, rocky soils --- many times where nothing else will grow

      Soil Texture: fine - coarse

      Soil pH: 4.7 - 8.0

      Range: eastern United States and southern Ontario; in Mississippi, throughout

       


       

      Identification

      Leaves:

      Type: evergreen; 2 forms;
      1) juvenile opposite in pairs, or ternate;
      2) mature 4-ranked
      Size: juvenile 0.25” long; mature 0.06” long

      Color: juvenile light green; mature dark green with glandular dots (both turn brown end of 2nd winter)

      Characteristics: juvenile awl-shaped, sharp-pointed, spiny to touch; mature shalelike, usually appressed

      Twigs:

      Size: slender; terete or angled

      Color: dark green; then reddish

      Surface: covered by compact scale-like leaves

      Buds:

      Size: minute

      Shape: (no data)

      Color: (no data)

      Surface: hidden by leaves

      Cones:

      Pollen Cones: dioecious; minute; 0.13” long; 10-12 yellow-brown stamens

      Ovulate Cones: dioecious; minute; globular; several purplish, fleshy scales, each with 1-2 basal ovules

      Mature Cones:

      Size: 0.25” dia.

      Shape: ovoid

      Characteristics: greenish blue with glaucous bloom (mature one season); fleshy, berrylike

      Seed: wingless; ovoid; sharp-pointed; 0.17” long

       

      Bark: thin; reddish brown; fibrous; long, narrow strips; fluted trunks; buttressed at base

      Physical Attributes:

      Form: single stem

      Size: 50.0’, mature

      Growth Rate: slow; 25.0’ maximum @ 20 yrs

      Life Span: moderate (>50 yrs)

      Tolerances:
      Shade: intermediate
      Drought: high
      Fire: low
      Anaerobic: low

       

      Propagation: seed (cold stratification required); bare root; container; cuttings

      Other: resprout/coppice potential


       


      Uses

      Wildlife Value and Uses:
      twigs and foliage eaten extensively by hoofed browsers; berries an important part of the diet of numerous birds and mammals, both large and small; important nesting cover for chipping sparrows, robins, song sparrows, and mockingbirds; roosting cover for juncos, myrtle warblers, sparrows of various kinds, and other birds; especially valuable as dense winter protective cover; widely used in shelterbelts and wildlife plantings

       

      Timber Value and Uses: close-grained, aromatic, and durable wood used for furniture, interior paneling, novelties, and fence posts; fruits and young branches contain aromatic oil used in medicines

       

      Landscaping Info: often used as ornamentals for their evergreen foliage; generally propagated by cuttings; seedlings ordinarily used as stock for grafting ornamental juniper clones; especially well adapted to dry areas

       

      Other Facts: symbolizes the tree of life for numerous Native American tribes; used as incense in rituals and burned in sweat lodges and in purification rites; used teas, ointments, and liniments made from the leaves, berries, and roots and combinations of them to treat arthritis and rheumatism, coughing; colds, fevers, tonsillitis, and pneumonia; also used as a sedative for hyperactivity, and to speed delivery during childbirth; wood utilized for lance shafts, bows, and other items; red cedar flutes were highly regarded by the Cheyenne; cedar boughs were used for bedding; Menomini wove mats of cedar bark used for roofing temporary structures, for partitions, floor mats and wrappings; wood used in the construction of lodges, totems, and war canoes by Native Americans of the northwest coast

       

      Reference: Hodges, J.D., Evans, D.L., Garnett, L.W. (N.D.) Mississippi Trees. Mississippi Forestry Commission, Jackson, MS.

    19. Nuttall Oak

      Nuttall Oak

      Quercus texana 
      Family: Fagaceae


       

      Habitat and Ecology:

      Site: wet clay soils along streams

      Soil Texture: fine

      Soil pH: 4.5 - 5.5

      Range: lower Mississippi Valley from Alabama west to Texas and Oklahoma; northeast to Illinois and Kentucky; in Mississippi, reported by the NRCS Plants Database in Jefferson, Sharkey, Leflore, Holmes, Kemper, Clarke, Jasper, Jackson, and Scott Counties --- likely scattered throughout on bottom lands in the State

       


       

      Identification

      Leaves:

      Type: simple, alternate, deciduous
      Size: 3.0” - 8.0” long; 2.25” - 5.25” wide

      Margin: lobed (5-11), 1 to 3 bristle-tipped teeth per lobe; lobes at midleaf usually opposite; deep sinuses, sometimes offset with lobes

      Apex: acute (bristle at end)

      Base: nearly truncate

      Shape: ovate to obovate

      Color: dark green above; pale green below

      Surface: smooth above; axillary tufts of tomentum below

      Venation: pinnate

      Twigs:

      Size: slender

      Color: gray to chestnut brown

      Surface: glabrous

      Buds:

      Size: 0.12” - 0.28” long

      Shape: ovoid

      Color: gray-brown

      Surface: glabrous, or ciliated scales at bud apex

      Fruit and Flowers:

      Nut: acorn, biennial; cup goblet-shaped, thin, pubescent inner and outer surfaces, covers 30 - 50% of nut

      Size: 0.63” - 1.0” long

      Shape: broadly ovoid to broadly ellipsoid

      Color: chestnut brown

      Flower: monoecious; unisexual; staminate, hairy, slender, yellow catkins, 3.0” - 4.0” long; pistillate, on short, densely pubescent stalks

       

      Bark: gray-brown to dark brown; flat ridges; shallow fissures

      Physical Attributes:

      Form: single stem

      Size: 100.0’, mature

      Growth Rate: 40.0’ maximum @ 20 yrs

      Life Span: (>100 yrs)

      Tolerances:
      Shade: low
      Drought: low
      Fire: low
      Anaerobic: medium

       

      Propagation: seed (cold stratification required); bare root; container

      Other: no resprout/coppice potential (mature stems)


       


      Uses

      Wildlife Value and Uses:
      important mast producer for ducks in greentree reservoirs; acorns contain 13 percent crude fat and 46 percent carbohydrates, and acorn crop failure is rare; good food supply for squirrels during flooding because many acorns remain on the tree into January; acorns also favored by deer and eaten by turkey; medium palatability as browse

       

      Timber Value and Uses: high value as a fuelwood product; also suitable as lumber, and veneer

       

      Landscaping Info: rapid growth, very tolerant of poorly-drained wet sites; leaves and fruit a litter problem in some settings; commercially available

       

      Other Facts: not distinguished as a species until 1927, when it was named for Thomas Nuttall (1786-1859), British-American botanist and ornithologist; foliage resembles pin oak - ranges overlap in Arkansas and Tennessee, but pin oak has smaller rounded acorns with a shallow cup

       

      Reference: Hodges, J.D., Evans, D.L., Garnett, L.W. (N.D.) Mississippi Trees. Mississippi Forestry Commission, Jackson, MS.

    20. Water oak

      Water Oak

      Quercu nigra 
      Family: Fagaceae


       

      Habitat and Ecology:

      Site: wet lowland to moist upland soils; can occur on most upland sites, and on deep sand deposits in bottomlands

      Soil Texture: fine - medium

      Soil pH: 4.8 - 5.8

      Range: New Jersey; south to Florida; west to Texas; north to Missouri; east to Virginia; in Mississippi, ubiquitous

       


       

      Identification

      Leaves:

      Type: simple, alternate, deciduous or tardily deciduous
      Size: 2.0”- 4.0” long; 1.0”- 2.0” wide

      Margin: entire; lobed (2-3) or; variously lobed (usually applicable only to sprouts and juvenile plants)

      Apex: acute to broadly obtuse

      Base: wedge-shaped

      Shape: spatulate, to obovate or oblong

      Color: dull green above; pale green below

      Surface: glabrous above; pubescent tufts below

      Venation: pinnate

      Twigs:

      Size: slender

      Color: dark red-brown to brown

      Surface: smooth, glabrous

      Buds:

      Size: 0.12” - 0.26” long

      Shape: ovoid, pointed apex

      Color: chestnut brown

      Surface: pubescent scales

      Fruit and Flowers:

      Nut: acorn, biennial; cup shallow, pubescent both surfaces; covers up to 25% of nut

      Size: 0.38” - 0.63”

      Shape: nearly round

      Color: nearly black; faint stripes

      Flower: monoecious; unisexual; staminate, stalked, hairy, yellow, catkins, 2.0” - 3.0” long; pistillate, mostly solitary, on short, hairy stalks

       

      Bark: light brown to black; furrows; relatively smooth when young; wide scaly ridges with age

      Physical Attributes:

      Form: single stem

      Size: 90.0’, mature

      Growth Rate: 30.0’ maximum @ 20 yrs

      Life Span: (>50 yrs)

      Tolerances:
      Shade: low
      Drought: low
      Fire: low
      Anaerobic: medium

       

      Propagation: seed (cold stratification required); bare root; container

      Other: resprout/coppice potential


       


      Uses

      Wildlife Value and Uses:
      cover, food, and habitat for wildlife; acorns eaten by squirrel, chipmunks, waterfowl, blue jays, wild turkey, and northern bobwhite; cached by blue jays and squirrels in the fall; home for cavity nesters; deer browse but palatability is low

       

      Timber Value and Uses: rough construction lumber; moderate quality lumber on good sites but prone to excessive splitting; veneer used as plywood for fruit and vegetable containers; on poor sites prone to knots, mineral stains, and insect damage

       

      Landscaping Info: rapid growth; dense foliage, fairly thick leaves and long leaf retention; fairly broad site adaptability; good shade tree choice in the South

       

      Other Facts: one of the largest known specimens is located in Jones County, Mississippi.

       

      Reference: Hodges, J.D., Evans, D.L., Garnett, L.W. (N.D.) Mississippi Trees. Mississippi Forestry Commission, Jackson, MS.

    21. Eastern Redbud

      Eastern Redbud

      Cercis canadensis L. 
      Family: Fabaceae


       

      Habitat and Ecology:

      Site: rich, moist soil near streams, fertile bottoms, slopes, open woods; frequently forms thickets

      Soil Texture: medium - coarse

      Soil pH: 4.5 - 7.5

      Range: New Jersey; west through Pennsylvania and New York to Minnesota; south to Florida; west to eastern Texas; in Mississippi throughout

       


       

      Identification

      Leaves:

      Type: simple, alternate, deciduous
      Size: 3.0” - 5.0” dia.

      Margin: entire

      Apex: abruptly acute

      Base: heart-shaped to flattened

      Shape: kidney-shaped

      Color: bright green above; paler below

      Surface: glabrous above; axillary tufts below, otherwise glabrous

      Venation: palmate

      Twigs:

      Size: slender

      Color: light brown with numerous small lenticels first winter; then gray-brown

      Surface: glabrous

      Buds:

      Size: terminal bud absent; laterals 0.13” long often superposed

      Shape: ovoid

      Color: red

      Surface: glabrous

      Fruit and Flowers:

      legume: short-stalked; compressed; in lateral clusters

      Size: pod 2.0” - 3.5” long; seeds 0.25” long

      Shape: pod linear-oblong; seed ovate

      Color: pod dark brown; seeds brown

      Flower: monoecious; perfect; irregular; in clusters of 4 to 8, on stalks 0.5” long; flower, 5 petals, purplish pink, 0.5” long

       

      Bark: thin; brown; smooth (young); darker, furrowed, long narrow plates with age

      Physical Attributes:

      Form: single stem

      Size: 16.0’, mature

      Growth Rate: slow; 16.0’ maximum @ 20 yrs

      Life Span: short (<50 yrs)

      Tolerances:
      Shade: tolerant
      Drought: high
      Fire: low
      Anaerobic: none

       

      Propagation: seed (cold stratification required); bare root; container

      Other: no resprout/coppice potential


       


      Uses

      Wildlife Value and Uses:
      seeds eaten by many birds, including bobwhite quail; browse for white-tailed deer and other mammals including livestock; blossoms attract honeybees

       

      Timber Value and Uses: no commercial value as a timber species

       

      Landscaping Info: widely cultivated as an ornamental for its showy flowers, and heartshaped leaves; does well in soils of moderate to low fertility; very drought resistant; widely available from nurseries; best to select younger, smaller plants

       

      Other Facts: used for various purposes by the Alabama, Cherokee, Delaware, Kiowa, and Oklahoma Native American tribes; blossoming branches were brought into the homes to "drive winter out"; tea from the bark used to treat whopping cough

       

      Reference: Hodges, J.D., Evans, D.L., Garnett, L.W. (N.D.) Mississippi Trees. Mississippi Forestry Commission, Jackson, MS.